Onyinyechukwu Maryrose Edeh, Uchechukwu Maryjane Nnabuife


The study examined the effective implementations of Biology curriculum in some secondary schools in Anambra State. Descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. The population of the study consisted of 3,115 SS2 biology students in public secondary school in Aguata Education zone. Simple random sampling was used to draw 200 SS2 biology students from the three local government areas that make up the education zone which include Aguata L. G.A, Orumba North and South L. G. A.  Instruments for collection of data were questionnaire, achievement scores in biology, observation and interview. The  statistical  tools  used  in  analyzing  the  data  were  frequency  table  and  simple  percentages. Findings therefore revealed that, the biology curriculum is not being effectively implemented in most schools by biology teachers. It was also found that instructional materials are lacking in teaching biology by the teachers. It was recommended among others that the government should employ more qualified teachers, laboratory assistants, cleaners with the adequate knowledge to handle both the theoretical and practical aspects of biology in an orderly manner to bring about effective implementation of the biology curriculum.


Biology, Curriculum, Biology Curriculum, academic achievement, Instructional Material.

Full Text:



Adam, U. A., Lameed, S., & Ayodele, B. B. (2022). Attaining meaningful learning of ecological concept: a test of the efficacy of 7e learning cycle model. IJER-International Journal of Educational Research, 5(4), 18-29.

Adolphus, T., (2018). Pupils’ attainment in secondary school physics: The case of Nigeria, including Implications for teachers and teacher educators. Journal of Social Science Research, 12(2), 2783-2803.

Ajayi, P.O. (2008). Evaluation of the implementation of senior secondary school Physics practical activities in Nigeria. Research in Curriculum Studies. 5(1), 105 – 120.

Akande, L.M., Mogbo, I.N., Bello, M.R. & Yaki, A.A. (2018). Effect of instructional scaffolding strategy on achievement in Biology among students of Unity Colleges in Niger state. Journal of Science, Technology, Mathematics and Education, 14(3); 1–9.

Alusbaie, M.A. (2015). Hidden curriculum as one of the current issues of curriculum. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(33), 125-128.

Asuzu, J.I., & Okoli, J.N. (2019). Effects of multimedia integrated instruction and demonstration method on secondary school students’ achievement in ecological concepts in Udi Education Zone. Unizik Journal of STM Education, 3(1), 141-150.

Buba, M. A., Gana, I. A. & Bularafa, M. W. (2019). Influence of instructional materials and school location on academic achievement of senior secondary school students in biology in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria. Rivers State University Journal of Education, 22 (1), 156-164.

Bukoye, O.R. (2019). Utilization of Instruction Materials as Tools for Effective Academic Performance of Students: Implication for Counseling. Proceedings, 2, 1395.

Effiong, O. E. & Igiri, C. E., (2015). Impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 62, 27-33.

Ekon, E.E., Sambo, G. I. & Ashiwere, I. O. (2023). Influence of locally available instructional materials on biology students’ academic achievement in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Global Journal Of Educational Research 22, 81- 87. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v22i1.9

Ezeh, O. V., Nwobodo, D. & Ishiwu, I. U. (2021). Extent of implementation of biology curriculum in senior secondary schools in Nsukka and Obollo-afor education zones of Enugu State, Nigeria. British International Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 8(7), 4519 – 6511.

Gautam, K.C. (2015). Factors affecting curriculum implementation for students. International Journal of Applied Research, 1(12), 984-986. www.allresearchjournal.com.

Hamunyela, H. N., Makaye, J., & Cruz, K. C. D. (2022). Implementation of the revised biology curriculum in selected junior secondary schools in Namibia. Creative Education, 13, 2958-2972. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2022.139187

Joda, F. M. (2019). Effects of instructional scaffolding strategy on senior secondary biology Students’ academic achievement and retention in Taraba State, Nigeria. Education Quarterly Reviews, 2(2), 269-275.

Kabesa, S., (2019). Locally available resources as an instructional aid in secondary school science in Kenya. International. Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 3(9), 462-465.

Loflin, T. (2016). Relationship between teacher fidelity and physical education student outcomes. Physical Educator, 12, 359-383. https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2015-V72-I5-7001

Mkpa, A. F. (2007). Curriculum development and implementation. Owerri: Totan Publishers.

Modupe, O. S. (2022). Factors affecting the effective implementation of biology curriculum in senior secondary school. Research Gates. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/366570217.

National Education Research and Development Council, (2008). Senior secondary school curriculum: Biology for senior secondary schools 1-3. Yaba Lagos: NERDC Press

Nwoke, E. S., Uitto, A. & Lavonen, J. (2022). A comparative study of upper secondary school biology curricula in two countries: Finland and Nigeria. Science Education International, 33(1), 38-49. https://doi.org/10.33828/sei.v33.i1.4

Nwuba, I. S., Egwu, S. O. & Osuafor, A. M. (2022). Enhancing academic achievement of Secondary school students in biology using mnemonic integrated instruction. Journal Plus Education, 30(1), 254-265.

Nwuba, I.S., & Osuafor, A.M. (2021). Effect of experiential learning approach on secondary school students’ academic achievement in biology in Awka Education Zone. South Eastern journal of Research and Sustainable Development, 4(2), 1-15.

Olaitan, S.O. & Ali, A. (2007). The making of a curriculum: Theory, process, product and evaluation. Onitsha: Cape Publishers.

Olugbuye, H., (2017). Environmental variables as determinant of students’ achievement in secondary school. Global Journal of Educational Research, 12, 46-52.

Omotayo, K.A. (2007). Theory and practice in curriculum development. Ado – Ekiti: Green Line.

Onuh, O., (2022). Effect of improvised chemical models in the teaching and learning of chemistry among senior secondary student achievement in Makurdi Local Government Area. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 10(7), 52-61.

Onwuka, U. (2004). Curriculum development for Africa. Onitsha: Africana Publishers Ltd.

Park, S., Jang, J., Chen, Y., & Jung, J. (2011). Is pedagogical content knowledge (pck) necessary for reformed science teaching? Evidence from an empirical study. Research Science Education, 41, 250-260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-009-9163-8

Pat-Anyaeji, V.N., & Okeke, S.O.C. (2019). Effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on secondary school students’ achievement in biology in Onitsha Education zone in Anambra State. Unizik Journal of STM Education, 3(1), 32-40.

Salami, M.O., & Ojediran, I.A. (2017). Investigative analysis of curriculum implementation (teaching/lecturing) in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(18) 138-147.

Salami, M. O., Oladipupo, P. O., Oloyede, M.A. & Adefioye, A. E. (2019). Assessment of biology curriculum implementation in colleges of education in Osun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 6(6) 2349–5219.

Sambo, G. I., (2022). Effect of blended learning instructional strategy on academic achievement of biology students in Abak Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, Department of Science Education, University of Calabar, Calabar.

Ufommadu, O., & Okoli, J.N. (2019). Effect of instructional scaffolding on achievement in biology by secondary school students with different cognitive styles in Awka Education Zone. Unizik Journal of STM Education, 3(1), 72-81.

Van den Akker, J., Fasoglio, D., & Mulder, H. (2010). A Curriculum Perspective on Plurilingual Education. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

West African Examinational Council (WAEC). (2015-2019). Chief examiner’s report. May/June,2015-2019.


  • There are currently no refbacks.







Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.