Noah Lumun Abanyam (PhD), Yahaya Denis Ibrahim


Aging is a developmental and continues process of change in the individual that start from conception in the uterus and goes on throughout life. There is hardly any society in the world without aging population. Due to improve living standard and health care; the numbers of the elderly are growing rapidly. However, as old age sets in, one is not expected to be strong and agile as before and this group becomes dependent on the younger population. This study is a theoretical review on developmental aspects of aging and the challenges in developing countries. Functionalist disengagement, interactionist activity and Marxist conflict theoretical perspectives were used in analyzing the study. The study found that developmental aspect or process of aging occur biologically or physically, psychologically or mentally and socially or culturally. As person grows old there is generally an increasing risk of diseases and impairment in functioning. Old age reduces productive capacity in individual. Old people in developing countries are faced with numerous challenges such as physical and mental health, poverty and nutrition, shelter, transportation, isolation and loss of respect. The study also found that societal responses to the needs and/or challenges of the elderly have assumed a relatively lack of concern. It was recommended that government in developing countries should include gerontology or sociology of the aged in their school curriculum at both the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in order to educate students or younger ones on how to give care to the elderly and that government of developing countries should also make sound and viable socio and economic relief laws to cater and care for the elderly as it is obtainable in developed countries. The study concludes that due the impairment in functioning associated with the developmental challenges of aging, there is urgent need for government of developing countries, health workers, family members, social workers and other related care givers to priority attention to the challenges faced by the elderly in developing countries.


Theoretical Review, Developmental Aspects, Aging, Challenges, Developing Countries

Full Text:



Abanyam, N. L. (2011). The Problem of the Aged in Nigeria. Journal of Research and Contemporary Issues, Vol. 6 No.1 &2 PP. 90-97.

Abiodun, A. J. (2002). The Aged in African Society. Lagos: Nade Nigeria Ltd & F.B. Venture.

Atchley, R. C. (1980). The Social Forces in Later Life: An Introduction to Social Gerontology. California: Wads Word Publishing Co.

Barkan, S. E. (2014). Social Problems: Continuity and Change. Retrieved from: nttp://www. saylor.org/book.

Cumming, E., & Henry, W. E. (1961). Growing Old: The Process of Disengagement. New York: Basic Books.

Giddens, A. (2010). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Goldspink, D. (2005). Why Women Outlive Men. Retrieved from: www.thenakedscientist. com/html/ content/news,45.

Haralambos, M., & Holburn, M. (2008). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. London: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.

Hareven, T.k. (1978). “The Last Age: Historical Adulthood and Old Age”, In E.H. Erikson (ed). Adulthood. New York: www.Norton&Company Inc. pp 201 -216.

Kimmel, M. S., & Aronson, A. (2009). Sociology Now: The Essentials. New York: Pearson.

Mboto, W. A. (2002). Introduction to Sociology of the Aged. Calabar: Clear Lines Publications.

Novak, M. (2012). Issues in Aging. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Schaefer, R.T. (2008). Sociology. New York: Mcgraw- Hill.


  • There are currently no refbacks.







Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.