Njideka T. Ebisi (PhD)


The history of our nation Nigeria has been one characterized by severe and often violent crisis since its birth which has continued to threaten its existence as one indivisible nation.   The state has been experiencing myriads of complex socio-political, ethno-religious, economic crisis emanating from inequality, corruption, oil disputes, insurgency and many others from tribal differences.  Nigeria as a nation has had to contend with Boko Haram in the north, the Niger Delta Avengers in the south, now faced with one of the deadliest conflicts that has continued unabated and dangerously politicized.  This conflict is mainly between the farmers and nomadic cow herders of Fulani extract.  This paper attempts to examine the antecedents of these conflicts across the south eastern states with a view to identifying the underlying causes of this crisis and its general impact on the south east region of Nigeria.  The paper adopted a qualitative research approach, drawing data from both secondary and primary sources.  Study revealed that there have been persistent attacks on communities of the south east with increased criminal activities of kidnapping, rapes, wanton destruction of farmlands and loss of lives.   Therefore, the paper recommends among others the reformation of existing ranches and establishment of new ones in the northern parts to curb cattle roaming; address environmental challenges of desertification that force herders southward, strengthen law enforcement and security strategies that will ensure equitable justice; restructuring of the already community vigilantes to modern community police for immediate response to crisis.


Third Conflict, Nigeria, Implications, South East

Full Text:



ACAPS Secondary Data (2015). Northeast Nigeria conflict: Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Yobe. Retrieved on October 10, 2016 from www.s-acaps-secondary-data-review-nigeria-24- august-2015.pdf

Adamu, A. and Ben, A. (2015). Migration and violent conflict in divided societies: Non-Boko Haram violence against christians in the middle belt region of Nigeria. Nigeria Conflict Security Analysis Network (NCSAN) Working Paper No. 1,World Watch Research.

Adebanwi, W. (2005). ‘The carpenters’ revolt: Youth violence and the reinvention of culture in Nigeria’. Journal of Modern African Studies, 43 (3), pp. 339-65

Adebowale, S. (2016). IPCR to partner with 600 volunteers to broker peace in Adamawa. Retrieved from

Adejumoke, A. (2009), Migration in Nigeria: A country profile (Geneva: International Organization for Migration).

Adeleye, I., Aja-Nwachuku, F. and Fawehinmi, Y. (2012). “Managing diversity in Nigeria: The Chevron way”, CIPM Human Resource Management Journal, 4(1), 1-13.

Adeleye, I., Atewologun, D. and Matanmi, O. (2014). “Equality, diversity and inclusion in Nigeria: Historical context and emerging issues”, in Klarsfeld, Alain, Booysen Lize A. E., Ng, E., Roper, I. and Tatli, A. (eds), International handbook on diversity management at work: Country perspectives on diversity and equal treatment, Second Edition. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, pp. 195-216.

Adesina, J. O. (2010). “Rethinking the social protection paradigm: Social policy in Africa’sdevelopment”, Background Paper for the European Report on Development.

Adisa, S. R. and Adekunle, O. A. (2010). “Farmer-herdsmen conflicts: A factor analysis of socioeconomic conflict variables among arable crop farmers in north central Nigeria”, Journal of Human Ecology, 30(1), 1-9.

Agency Report (2016). Gunmen assassinate Miyetti Allah Chairmen in Kogi. Retrieved from

Aghedo, I. (2013). “Elusive peace: Understanding the resurgence of kidnapping in post-amnesty Niger Delta region.” In: Imobighe, T. A. and Ebohon, S. I. (eds). Themes and issues in Nigerian governance and politics. Kuru: NIPSS, pp 341-372.

Aina, A.D. (2016). “Factionalism, rampaging economic vampires and the fragilesState.” Babcock University inaugural lecture, 9 March.

Ajala, A. S. (2008a). “Identity and space in Ibadan politics, Western Nigeria”, African Identities, 6 (2), pp. 149-68. (2008b). “Obafemi Awolowo and the beginning of the Yoruba political image in Nigeria”, Journal of Environment and Culture, 5(1), pp. 29-48. _______ (2009).

Daniel (2013). Adamawa govt. inaugurates conflict committees for LGAs. Retrieved from

Daramola, A. (2005). “Global climatic change, environmental resource and pastoral nomadic management in Nigeria”, Paper presented at the IHDP conference on Management of Environmental Commons, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, March, 2-3.

Deacon, B., Ilva, M, Koivusalo, E.O., and Stubbs, P. (2005). “Copenhagen social summit ten years on: the need for effective social policies nationally, regionally and globally”, GASPP Policy Brief No. 6, January. Helsinki: STAKES.

DFID (2002). Conducting conflict assessments: Guidance notes. London: DFID.

Dickson, S. (2016). Statement made on the occasion of one year. Memorial lecture for Diepere Aleimeigha in Amassoma on 10 October.

Doortmont, M.R. (1989). “The invention of the Yorubas: Regional and pan-nationalism versus ethnic provincialism”, in de Moraes Farias, P.F. and K. Barber (eds.), Self-assertion and brokerage: early nationalism in West Africa. Birmingham, CWAS, pp. 101-108.

Egwu, S. (2016). ‘Cult war claims 7 lives in Kogi.’ Retrieved on July 15, 2016 from news/514802/cult-war- claims-7-lives-kogi Ehrenfeld, D. W. (1976). “The conservation of non-resources”, American Scientist, 6, 648-656.

Ekeh, P.P. (1975). ‘Colonialism and the two publics in Africa: A theoretical statement’, in Comparative Studies in Society and History 17:1, 91-112.

Ekpenyong , A and Daniel , E. (2015). “Rural-rural migration in Bayelsa state, Nigeria: A case study of rural-rural migrants along Tombia-Amassoma expressway, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 2, February , pp. 1-10.

Eradiri, U. (2016). Remarks made on the occasion of one year Memorial Lecture for Late Chief Diepeye Alameisiegha in Amassome on 10 October.

Eseduwo, F. S. (2008). “Petroleum prospecting, state violence and hostage taking in Nigeria: A study of the Niger Delta region (1966-2007)”, Paper presented at the International Conference on the Nigerian State, Oil Industry and the Niger Delta, March 11-13, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State.

Eze, O. C. and Anigbo, C. A. (eds) (2010). New scramble for Africa. Lagos: NIIA.

Eziukwu, A. (2015). “Niger Delta meet in Yenagoa, threaten war should Jonathan loss presidential elections”, Premium Times, January 24th, accessed on 31/10/2016, at: www.premiumtimesng. com/.../175532-niger-delta-militants-meet-yenagoa- threaten-war-jonathan-losepresidential-election.html

Fabricus, C. and Koch, E. (2004). Right, resource and rural development: Community-based natural resource management in Southern Africa. London, England: Earthscan.

Fabusoro, E. (2006). “A study on property rights, access to natural resources and livelihood security among settled herders agro-pastoralists in southwestern Nigeria”, A project funded by International Foundation for Science, (IFS), Sweden and coordinated by United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies, Yokohama, Japan. January 2005-June 2006

Mair, S. (2017) Colonial Administration and Africa’s Independence. Oxford: Oxford University Press Mitchell, B. (1987) Ethnic Nationalism in Africa. London: Zed Press

Mnoma, V. (1995) “Ethnic Conflict, Constitutional Engineering and Democracy in Nigeria” in Ethnic Conflict and Democratization in Africa. Harvey Glickman (ed). Atlanta: African Studies Association Press.

Momoh, H. B. (2000) The Nigerian Civil War: History and Reminiscences. Ibadan: San Bookman Publishers

Nnoli, O. (1980) Ethnic Politics in Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers

Nnoli, O. (2007) “Theories and Concepts of Ethnicity” in Conflict Resolution, Identity Crisis and Development in Africa” Celestine, Bassey and Oshita, Oshita (eds). Abuja: Malthouse Press Limited.

Obaro, I. (1998) “Professionalize the Army”, The Post Express, June 22.

Osaghae, E. (9186) “Do Ethnic Minorities still exist in Nigeria?” Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, Vol. 24, No. 2.

Osaghae, E. (1998) “Managing Multiple Minority Problems in a Divided Society: The Nigerian Experience” in the Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 36, No. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Osaghae, E. (2002) Nigeria since Independence: Crippled Giant. Ibadan: John Archers Publishers Limited.

Otite, O. (1990) Ethnic Pluralism and Ethnicity in Africa. Ibadan: Shaneson Limited

Rothschild, D. (1996) “Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa” in International Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3

Stavenhagen (1997) Ethnic Consciousness in Developing Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books

Welsh, D. (1996) “Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa” in International Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3

Young, A. N. (1976) The Struggle for Secession, 1966 – 1970; a personal account of the Nigerian Civil War. London: F. Class


  • There are currently no refbacks.